Research Team | Terrorism & Humiliation

Refugees & Humiliation:
How Dignity is Degraded When You Are a Refugee, or a Displaced or Stateless Person

This is a large research project with 18 research teams of young scholars and their academic advisors, that was planned to be conducted in cooperation with the United Nations University. However, due to lack of funding, much of this research could not be realized. So far, Mari Otterlei Blikom has carried out her planned research, and Katrine Fangen is continuously working on her research.

For all the other projects that you see listed further down, we are currently looking for funding, and kindly encourage foundations and donors to consider funding this research, either as a whole, or in parts. We are grateful for your support and advice!

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 states that 'all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.'
In this research project we ask: What happens when rights and dignity are violated? What are the long-term effects? What is, for example, the long-term effect on people who are born, live and die as refugees, in refugee camps? What are the inter-generational effects? How are second and third generation refugees affected?

The original plan for the end product was to produce an edited book, Refugees and Humiliation, which was envisaged to be finished within a biannual time frame, with the following contents:
a) conceptual chapters
b) cases provided by our research teams (already with relevance to policy)
c) a policy brief that summarises the insights.

•  Research Host & Management
•  Research Team
Material & Links

Research Host & Management

Evelin Gerda Lindner, M.D., Ph.D. (Dr. med.), Ph.D. (Dr. psychol.)
Founding Manager of Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies (HumanDHS)

Paul A. Stokes, Ph.D., College Lecturer
Department of Sociology at the National University of Ireland, Dublin

Linda Hartling, Ph.D., Associate Director
Jean Baker Miller Training Institute, Wellesley College, Boston, USA

Moira R. Rogers, Ph.D., Associate Professor
Department of Language and Literature, EMU, Virginia, USA

Maggie O'Neill, Lecturer
Criminology and Social Policy at Loughborough University, UK

Alicia Cabezudo, Professor and Peace / Human Rights Educator
Educating Cities Latin America

Barbara Harrell-Bond, Professor
Forced Migration and Refugee Studies at the American University in Cairo, Egypt

Trevor L. Ballance, Lecturer and Researcher
Josai International University, Japan

Jack A. Goldstone, Professor
George Mason University School of Public Policy, kindly offers to help us present our research, when it is finished, in the Washington area

See pictures of meetings


Research Team

•  General HumanDHS
•  Academic Advisors
•  Refugees and Humiliation Project (alphabetical)

•  Terrorism and Humiliation Project (alphabetical)




Dignity-Humiliation in the Case of Internally Displaced Persons in Latin America: The Examples of Colombia, Guatemala, Peru and Mexico



•  Juan Alvarez Vita (Ambassador of Peru and Professor of Public International Law)
•  Abdeljalil Akkari (Professor, Director of Research at the Higher Pedagogical Institute HEP-BEJUNE in Bienne, Switzerland)
•  Tzvetelina Tzoneva
•  Mercedes St. Elin

The problem of the internal displacement is found in all over the world. Latin America is the world’s second region affected with 3.7 million internally displaced people and nearly all new displacements recorded during 2004. It also constituted the region where all the factors for displacement occurred: internal violence, armed conflicts, political and economic interests as well as, natural and human-made disasters. Particularly relevant is the fact that the most affected populations are the indigenous peoples. Firstly, they are forced to leave their homes and their lands to which there are traditionally linked. Secondly, they are victims of discrimination because their cultural identity is conceived as inferior. In order to avoid humiliation, many indigenous displaced have renounced to their cultural identity. With this research, we will seek to find out in which measure the displacement has affected specific rights of indigenous people as well as their cultural identity; to analyze how the intolerance, discrimination and the non-respect for diversity has affected displaced persons in their live; and to recognize positive actions that has been implemented or may be implemented in order to overcome the dignity-humiliation.



Understanding the Lives of Refugees Living in Exile: A Core Social Motive Approach

Otterlei Blikom, Mari (2006)
Understanding the Lives of Refugees Living in Exile: A Core Social Motive Approach
Master Thesis, Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim, Norway.



•  Mons Bendixen (Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim)
•  Mari Otterlei Blikom

The main aim of this study was to investigate how it is to live in a Norwegian asylum
centre. Research indicates that asylum seekers have to deal with acculturative stress,
psychological stress, social exclusion, humiliation, discrimination and social stigma on
a day-to-day basis. A custom-build qualitative research method inspired by grounded
theory and to some extent interpretive phenomenological analysis was applied. Six
asylum seekers were selected from an asylum centre close to a larger Norwegian city.
The interviews focused on fulfillment of core social motives in general and humiliation
in particular. The findings suggested that fulfilment of core social motives varied among
the asylum seekers. None of the informants, however, had all five core social motives
fulfilled. This was suggested to influence coping strategies and reactions to
discrimination and humiliation. All the informants experienced begin discriminated
against and being an asylum seeker as humiliating.



An Existential Discourse Analysis of Humiliation as Reported by Iraqi Refugees in the UK and Denmark



•  Richard Burns (MSc in Applied Psychology at Manchester University)
•  Martin Farrell (Ph.D. from the University of Strathclyde in 1993, lecturer at the Department of Psychology, University of Manchester, since 1997)
•  Ivan Leuder (Ph.D., Manchester University, UK)
•  Espen Sivertsen
•  Jacqueline Hayes
•  Peter Mosely
•  Johanna Turner Baker
•  Alex Dawson

By recording narrative biographical interviews with Iraqi refugees based in the UK and Denmark, and analyzing these accounts using existential discourse analysis, we hope to illuminate the experience of and the causes of humiliation in Iraqi refugees. This is a national group of particular interest to humiliation studies when seen in context of persons taking refuge within a country that has waged war on their place of origin. The host nations have the potential to be labelled as both provider, victor, and also as humiliator, and we expect that these factors will be more marked in the UK Iraqis than in Danish Iraqis due to the British government's much greater involvement in their country of origin. Growing hostility towards immigrants (particularly highlighted by the recent Danish and British elections) may add another dimension to the humiliation felt during the culture clash experienced by the refugee. In addition, there are marked differences between the quality of welfare afforded citizens of Denmark and UK (e.g. Philip & Smith, 2005), and this may affect the level of humiliation felt by refugees within the respective countries. We intend to study humiliation as an experience that could potentially 'disembody' a refugee; by dissociating themselves from certain aspects of humiliation, a refugee may eventually live their existence as fundamentally fractured, having denied and distorted an authentic openness towards being with others. We will further this existential perspective by explicating how humiliation inhibits social power, and by considering also the political consequences of humiliation. We hope that our study will both retain 'refugee dignity' and provide practical implications for minimising the humiliation enacted upon refugees.



Humiliation and Human Strength: Stories of African-Spanish Migrations



•  Moira R. Rogers (Ph.D., Principal Investigator, Project Coordinator, Associate Professor, Department of Language and Literature, Eastern Mennonite University, EMU, Virginia, USA)
•  Nancy Good Sider (Ph.D., Project Consultant, Graduate Faculty, Conflict Transformation, Eastern Mennonite University, EMU, Virginia, USA)
•  Andrea Enders (German Journalist, fluent in English, Spanish, Italian, French)
•  Esperanza Moreno (BA, Justice Peace and Conflict Studies, fluent in Spanish, experience in work with displaced women, Colombia and Venezuela)
•  Laura Schildt (MA, Center for Justice and Peacebuilding, Eastern Mennonite University, EMU, fluent in Spanish and English, experience in community development, Mexico)
•  Federico Laggi (MA, Development Studies, fluent in English, French, Italian, Spanish, Camp Manager of the UNHCR D’Jabal Refugee Camp for the Italian NGO INTERSOS (2004); currently Italy-Morocco Remittances Corridor Project Analyst)
•  Tobias Pechmann (Student in International Politics, University of Marburg, fluent in German and English, Photographer)

This study tells a chapter of the story of mass migrations in the 21st century. A rapidly growing number of African migrants enter the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla in northern Morocco. Many pay for a place in tiny overcrowded boats that use darkness to cross the Straits of Gibraltar. Those who reach Spain find themselves stranded in Red Cross refugee camps, work as farm laborers or keep going to France and more recently Italy. Some make it only as bodies washed ashore.
Through qualitative interviews grounded in appreciative inquiry, we wish to explore the complexities of the humiliation experienced by these migrants through the sophisticated security mechanisms of "defense" implemented by the Spanish / Moroccan immigration systems financed by the European Union. These barriers include a new "wall" or fence, located in Ceuta, lately installed infrared and radar systems to identify the "pateras" on the sea, and xenophobic and racist responses in the societies that receive them. Those who succeed exhibit an incredible resilience that allows them to transcend their condition as "harragas," people who have burned their past. Through this study we hope to contribute to breaking the cycles of humiliation fueled by the displacement of many and to making our world a hospitable place for all people.



Refugees and Humiliation: The Legacy of Violence and Inaction in the Great Lakes Region. The Uganda-Rwanda Scenario



•  Brenes Abelardo (Ph.D., Director of the M.A. Programme in Peace Education at the University for Peace in San José, Costa Rica)
•  Alicia Cabezudo (Director, Educating Cities Latin America, International Relations Bureau, Municipality of Rosario, Argentina)
•  Antony Jenkins (Peace Education Center, Teachers College, Columbia University, NY)
•  Alphonse Nshimiyimana
•  Onen Christine Harriet
•  Veronica Pacini

Humiliation, which results in interference with goal-oriented behaviour or threat to life, material wellbeing or self-concept, is the key feature of violent conflicts in Africa today. The Great Lakes Region of Africa has been experiencing, for almost five decades, a continuous influx and efflux of refugees, stateless persons, and the internal displacement of the masses. The repeated displacement and disruption of livelihood has made displaced persons in Rwanda and Uganda dependent on handouts in addition to the loss of motivation for advancement, old self-reliance, progress or betterment.
Many times the refugees suffer dire life conditions in their new settings, which has a counter effect on their healing processes and state of mourning. The process of mourning is a necessary critical social need without which a cycle of humiliation will continue and hope for the community to prepare for a better future becomes unlikely.
The displaced persons camp is a place where humiliation is neither considered nor resolved. Thus, there is a need to investigate factors that fuel humiliation and identify the action to make refugees camps an educational place where humiliation can be transformed through peaceful means.

Afro-Hitlerism: History of Cultural Humiliation in the Great-Lakes



•  Raïs Neza Boneza (Norway/ Democratic Republic of Congo [Ex-Zaire]), BA in Social Sciences, MA of Humanities, Author and Poet. The title of his project is Afro-Hitlerism: Historic of Cultural Humiliation in the Great-Lakes)

By Hitlerism, we see a tendency or an ideology that duplicates political and racist values as well as concrete modalities of Nazism without necessarily having a total relationship or political affinity with it. This ideology includes mass killing, genocide, rhetorical patterns, falsification of history, and superiority, supremacist attitudes, aggressive militarism, interventionist mentality, propaganda, mass control through indoctrination, uncontrolled nationalistic emotions. The Hitlerism behaviour is accompanied by a "Sionic syndrome" that could be identified as "victimhood" both embodied in "Cyclic Humiliation."
The main aim of this project is to address the other facet on African conflicts. Namely issues concerning the culture of humiliation which consequently are provocative of "refugees flux or forced immigration" that raises states instability, insecurity and difficulties for regional integration on the continent. The project research relies on historic-political and archaeological data. The population targeted in Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, R.D. Congo, Sudan, Kenya, Somalia, and eventually Sierra-Leone, Liberia.



Refugees’ Psychological Functioning in Cameroon: The Case of Chadian or Central African Adults of Yaoundé



•  Van der Linden (Professor, Department of Cognitive Psychopathology, University of Geneva, Switzerland)
•  Tsempzang Simplice

African contest is always marked with war and social troubles. This situation has dire consequences on human life. Refugees have to move in order to find better conditions for life. Many Africans suffer in their countries due to poverty and war, however, as refugees, they suffer even more. They face a hostile environment, inadequate integration policies of the host government, exploitation and conflict derived from cultural clash. Even more, many refugees are still young and living without psychological support. There is often a lack of coordination between national and international organization policies as regards immigration.
The aim of this research is to show that instabilities deriving from war and poverty can lead to other forms instabilities that are specific to psychological functioning.
We hope that through this study, the authorities in charge will find within the occasion to better understand the consequences of their decisions and actions. We also hope that this study will bring more light into the mental functioning of the refugees.
The theory that supports this research is the theory of traumatism. Questions asked are as follows: How do refugees live psychologically their double humiliation?
The main hypothesis is that the daily life of refugees is more burdened with negative feelings than the lives of non-refugees, negative feeling meaning humiliation, low self esteem, depression, anxiety, lack of emotional regulation, and post traumatic syndrome disorder.



The Dual Humiliation of Female Refugees by Sexually Violent, Gender-Based Acts



•  Linda Hartling (Ph.D., Stone Centre, Wellesley College for Women, USA)
•  Miriam H. Marton

Reports continue to flow from refugee camps about the interminable sexual violence committed against female refugees.1 The extent of such sexual violence, however, remains unknown. What is known is that sexual violence is one of the most humiliating experiences a human being can suffer. What is also known is that refugees are often from or displaced into countries with extremely patriarchal cultures with religious beliefs or social customs that prohibit reporting, seeking treatment, or prosecution in relation to acts of sexual violence, and, in fact, promote victim blaming.
Furthermore, most contemporary nation-states are based in patriarchal cultures themselves. Sexual violence is a part of these cultures and is often used to demonstrate conquest of one group over another, leading to condonation rather then condemnation of sexual violence. Thus, the international community has been outrageously reluctant to work for the cessation of sexual violence committed in the context of conflict. The study begins then with the hypothesis that female refugee rape survivors experience another wave of humiliation inflicted by both or one of local patriarchal cultures and the international community.
The study proposes to determine the extent of sexual violence committed against female refugees and understand the female refugees' experience of living with the rape experience. The study will further look at the options that have been put in place to deal with sexual violence against female refugees and how (a) the culture in which the woman finds herself prevents her from utilizing such options; and (b) the options themselves may constitute another wave of humiliation.
1 There are also reports of the sexual assault on children. This study limits itself to the sexual assault of adult female refugees.



Resilience, Humiliation and Adulthood Sexual Abuse: Understanding the Psychology of Violence among Sudanese Refugees living in Uganda



•  Alicia Cabezudo (Director, Educating Cities Latin America, International Relations Bureau, Municipality of Rosario, Argentina)
•  Alyi Patrick Lalur

Adulthood sexual violence and the humiliation that result from such abuse occur in many places all over the world with very few being reported. Many programs that address symptoms of sexual abuses tend to concentrate on handling consequence of childhood sexual abuses (CSA). If reported they are reported as rape and not the many forms of sexual assaults that could have happened. For refugee women and girls, where human rights abuses take place on a daily basis, these atrocities assume special significance and may have life long impacts on their physical and psychological recovery, creativity, healing and sense of community. Consequences of adulthood sexual assaults are serious and long term ranging from community rejection and psychological trauma to HIV/AID infection and death. These vicious cycles of violence go on with sometimes full notice of the authorities who do not want to talk about. Whether women are vulnerable as result of previous sexual assaults has not attracted attention of researchers either.
Until lately, apart from rape, many sexual assaults among refugees have happened with very little attentions being given to investigate and particularly the psychological recovery of the victims, their coping strategies, the humiliation and the relationships that the victims later on develop with the perpetrators.
In the current case study I intend to investigate the correlation between resilience, healing and humiliation among 1,800 Sudanese sexually assaulted refugees living in Uganda. The study will use both quantitative and qualitative approaches in three case study camps all found in Northern Uganda which at the present host over 200,000 registered refugees.



Refugees from the Great Lakes Region of Central Africa & Humiliation



•  Vernon Jantzi (Ph.D., is a Professor of Sociology at the Conflict Transformation Program at Eastern Mennonite University, Virginia, USA)
•  Chantal Logan (Ph.D., is an Associate Professor at the Eastern Mennonite University, Virginia, USA)
Jean Berchmans Ndayizigiye

This study is about contemporary refugees from the countries of the Great Lakes Region of Central Africa in Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Malawi, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The research intends to present a more comprehensive, systematic and tenable understanding of the fact that so many people have turned into refugees. It also intends to understand the refugee world and what makes this problem continue until now, or what factors helped to sustain it. It aims to find out the types and extent of humiliation they are facing while living as refugees. As no research has been done to highlight the issue of humiliation in Burundian, Congolese, and Rwandan refugees, therefore this research will be a tool for the advocacy of the voiceless, stateless people and an authentic documentation of the plight and deplorable condition of these people who once had a family, a dignified life, and a country.



Iraqi Refugees in Syria and Jordan & Humiliation (pending funding!)



•  Jayne Seminare Docherty (Ph.D., Associate Professor of Conflict Studies Conflict Transformation Program, Eastern Mennonite University, Virginia, USA)
•  Howard Zehr (Ph.D., Professor of Sociology and Restorative Justice, Co-Director of the Conflict Transformation Program, Eastern Mennonite University, Virginia, USA)
• Manas Ghanem

This research aims to increases our awareness of the humiliation that refugees are suffering from in the country of refuge. It focuses on knowing the reasons behind this feeling of lack of self respect while in refuge; and the link between this feeling of humiliation and the various levels of violence starting with self destruction up to its effects on the community and society levels. We need to highlight the effects of such feelings of humiliation among refugees on the relationships they make in the society of the hosting country. The case study of this research is the Iraqi refugees in two specific countries in the Middle East, Syria and Jordan being the main refuge countries for a huge number of Iraqis of all categories for the past two decades.
This research could be of great importance in giving guidelines to the United Nations to help directing the official agencies of the countries of refuge (Jordan and Syria) to better deal with the phenomenon of refugee’s rehabilitation. It also provides international agencies dealing with refugees in the region with information to formulate better policies of rehabilitation and integration of refugees in the countries of refuge and resettlement so that the community as an organization learns how to deal with its conflicts which causes negative feelings of humiliation. Policies that would take in consideration the refugee’s psychological need to feel their self respect, dignity and honour.



African Refugees and Humiliation: Comparative Study on Refugees in Africa and in Europe



•  François Audigier (Professor, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology at the University of Geneva, Switzerland)
Jean-Damascène Gasanabo

The history of humanity has always seen conflicts, civil wars or international violence. In different parts of the world, people have been killed and others exiled as refugees, having to flee their homes. Despite the fact that local and international organizations provide essential necessities to the refugees and theirs employees show humanity and respect while accomplishing theirs tasks with professionalism, the refugees still lose their dignity. Their self-esteem may also suffer. In the country they arrive, refugees suffer sometimes of isolation because they are not integrated in the local community. They feel humiliated from both sides, from their original country as well as from the host country. As result of this, many refugees face psychological problems. While some children and adults show a high level of resilience to trauma, others suffer serious and lasting effects, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), distress, impairment of attachment, making it difficult for them to form strong relationships. Our survey would analyse and compare how African refugees in Africa and in Europe suffer humiliation.



Frustration, Humiliation and Psycho-Social Suffering of Rwandan Refugees in Africa and Europe



•  Pierre Dasen (Professor of Anthropology of Education and Cross-Cultural Psychology at the Faculty of Psychology and Education of the University of Geneva, Switzerland)
•  Théogène-Octave Gakuba
•  Egide Rwamatwara

In Rwanda, the 1994 genocide of Tutsi and ‘moderate’ Hutu claimed more than a million lives and forced many more into exile. The Rwandan tragedy is one of its kind in the history of Humanity. Several forms of violence and humiliation were used during the genocide, including torture, rape, opening the womb of the pregnant woman, cutting the body into pieces using machetes, inhumation of alive people.
Survivors of genocide still suffer from the consequences of this traumatizing experience. They are not able to mourn their lost ones and have difficulties to give a meaning to their existence. Refugees have also an extra challenge of adapting to a new mode of life in exile and this worsens their psychological suffering. Thus most of them find their exile life very traumatizing since their return is not conceivable in a near future.
This research adopts a comprehensive/descriptive and explanatory approach to analyse the concept of humiliation and its socio-psychological consequences using the case of Rwanda refugees in Africa and in Europe. In order to attain this objective, we shall analyse the concept of humiliation from an interdisciplinary approach which make use of anthropological, sociological and psychological theories.



Afghan Refugees in the United States: Before and After September 11th



•  Alicia Cabezudo (Director, Educating Cities Latin America, International Relations Bureau, Municipality of Rosario, Argentina)
Sadaf Rassoul Cameron

This is a sociological study of Afghans who arrived in the United States in the late 1970’s. The aim is to delve into the stories of these people at this time and recount incidents of humiliation in the sharp contrast of East meets West, to then compare, contrast, and study these stories with incidents of humiliation post September 11th.



Refugees in South Asia & Humiliation



•  Richard Alapack (Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, Norway)
Zahid Shahab Ahmed

The study will target both registered and non-registered refugees in South Asian countries. Registered refugees are formally entitled to any basic facilities offered by UNHCR and other International organizations like food, shelter, heath and education. Targeting non-registered refugees, because Tibetan refugees are not living in refugee camps provided by any international organization or UNHCR.
Mostly the refugees in this region are living in camps in the restricted areas. According to Refugees International’s report Rohingya refugees mainly live in Cox’s Bazaar district illegally among the local population. Further the report says that Rohingya refugees now live in horrendous conditions with mortality rates near emergency levels and no means of obtaining basic services and protection.
Refugees in South Asia are facing lots of problems and the most severe one could be if none of the nations are willing to accept them as their citizens, this is humiliation a root of severe psychological problems.
Therefore, this research is with intent to find out the dimensions of humiliation in case with specific refugee groups in South Asia. Furthermore, the researcher will try to find out the link of humiliation with basic human rights of refugees, such as food, security, shelter, health and education.



Immigrants, Refugees in West Africa & Humiliation



•  Williams R. O’Neill (Ph.D., Jesuit School of Theology at Berkeley, USA)
Victor Boudjou Adangba

The major focus of this work will be on immigrants and humiliation. With several years of wars in Liberia and Sierra Leone, and ongoing political tensions in some West African countries, the experiences of refugees and immigrants come to the fore. These experiences raise ethical, theological as well as existential questions.
At the same time, however, the population of refugees in West Africa is mostly composed of immigrants. Because they are frequently pejoratively called "aliens", "foreigners", and "outsiders", immigrants become the first targets and victims of national conflicts and, thus, increase the population of refugees and internally displaced people (IDP). This research, therefore, seeks to analyze from the ethical and theological points of view humiliation that immigrants suffer in four West African countries.



Humiliation Policies Applied to Persecuted Individuals, Detainees and Refugees During the Period 1975/1983 in Rosario, Argentina



•  Rubén A. Chababo (Literature Professor, Assistant Professor of Nineteenth Century Argentine Literature at the Humanities and Arts School of Rosario, and a Literature Professor at Bialik Institute in Rosario, Director of the Museo de la Memoria (Museum of Memory) in the city of Rosario, pertaining to a branch of the Secretary of Culture of the Municipality of Rosario, which is the first governmental institution devoted to reconstructing and safekeeping the memory of the recent past linked to the last military dictatorship, in power from 1976 to 1983)
•  Sandra Helena Cachenot (Psychologist)
•  Coordinator of Research Team: Marcela Valdata
•  Team Members: Advanced Undergraduate Students: María Laura Salafia, Delia Natalia Urquiza, Jorgelina Gabriela Almeida, Juan Manuel Walmaggia
Graduate: Ceferino Roque Moreira

The present work will realizes inter-disciplinary group (Political Sciences- Anthropology- Museum Conservation- History- Psychology- Social Work) who focused the problematic of the humiliations safer by individuals that have been persecuted, detained and liberated, refugees (both living abroad and in the country) and the families of the disappeared in the city of Rosario during the last military coup government (period 1975-1983). It will realizes through of data collection of the facts that caused the detention of individuals in Rosario and surrounding area, identification of causes of detention and investigating the treatment given to the detainees in Detention Centers, analyzing the different strategies of survival implemented by the persecuted/detained/liberated individuals that led to seeking refuges and analyzing the difficulties in reestablishing social life. The study will be qualitative. The researchers will use as a basis the ethnographic method of data collection with interviews and observation. The bibliographical, iconographic and photographic with modern technical museum conservation.



A Qualitative Study on the Sri Lankan Tamil Refugees Living in Camps in Tamil Nadu on the Humiliation That They Face



•  Rev. Fr. Joseph Xavier (PhD., Former Principal, Loyola College, Chennai, India)
Florina Benoit
•  G. Gladston Xavier

The project is a qualitative study on the Sri Lankan Tamil Refugees living in camps in
Tamil Nadu and on the humiliation that they face. It proposes to highlight the present day situation. This study is important, because presently there is no documentation of the humiliation undergone by the refugees. Since India is not a signatory to the United Nations convention of 1951, they are not answerable to the international body. There are many human rights violation in the camps. All the humiliation is overruled by the humanitarian assistance that the Government of India gives to the refugees. The general objective of the study is to study the humiliation done to the Sri Lankan Tamil refugees. This will be done in the refugee camps in Tamil Nadu. Since this is a new venture the study will be one of its kind. It will add knowledge to the existing problems among the refugees. Recommendations based on this study will be valuable for refugee work.

Humiliation and Conflict Escalation in Post-Saddam Iraq: A Case Study of the Baghdad University Fallujah Refugee Camp



•  Linda Hartling (Ph.D., Stone Centre, Wellesley College for Women, USA)
•  Victoria Fontan

The destruction of an estimated 2/3rds of the city of Fallujah, in November 2004, was widely publicized in the US as the ultimate fight for democracy in preparation for the January 2005 Iraqi elections. A direct result from the re-election of George W. Bush to the White House, Operation Phantom Fury has alienated the city's surviving population to an occupying force that was once welcome as a liberating entity. Today, this refugee population of approximately 150,000 people endures harsh living conditions in camps scattered in and around Baghdad. It refuses all humanitarian help from any country that is part of the US-led coalition and has often ordered the abduction of many Western journalists attempting to initiate any form of communication. Very few Fallujah refugees participated in the January 2005 electoral process, thus alienating this community to Iraq 's newly acquired democracy as well as the rest of the Iraqi population. What went wrong? What are the escalation dynamics that led the situation to reach such a tragic climax? Is the polarization between occupiers and occupied in post-Saddam Iraq an intractable situation? This research project aims at analyzing and understanding the mechanisms that led to the current socio-political situation, in order to foster a potential de-escalation between this specific community and the rest of the Iraqi population. A preliminary research that was carried out in Fallujah between May 2003 and April 2004 has identified humiliation as a key element in conflict escalation. This research will attempt to further earlier findings in the form of a survey of the surviving population of Fallujah and look for alternative strategies for stabilization in comparable situations.


Refugees in Kenya and the Phenomenon of Humiliation



•  Michael Roper, Sociology Department, University of Essex, UK
•  Ana Ljubinkovic

First influx of Somali refugees currently residing in Dadaab Refugee Camps in North-Eastern District of Kenya, escaped their war ravaged country and arrived to the camps in 1991. Between December 1992 and March 1995, Somalia was receiving American led UN military humanitarian intervention (UNOSOM). While it is generally accepted that the intervention had scarce success due to poor intervening strategy, the fact that intervening forces deliberately killed, raped and in many other ways physically and psychologically injured and humiliated Somali people has been widely overlooked. After the withdrawal of the foreign troops, second large influx of Somali refugees arrived to the refugee camps. Numerous victims of the foreign forces were among them. Once again Somali refugees were entirely dependent on UN and its implementing partners for their survival in the Refugee Camps. Besides the core humiliation inherent in such state of dependency, Somali people experience variety of other types of degradation and debasement induced by the UN and its partners. This research will attempt to unfold the complex and multifaceted experience of the humiliation in the refugee camps and try to disclose different shapes it might assume. Focus will be on the feeling of humiliation induced by the assistance provider while trying to understand the links between past humiliating experiences with UNOSOM and present the present one in the Camps.


Humiliation as Experienced by Somali Immigrants in Norway



•  Katrine Fangen

Life as a refugee attempting to create a new life in an unfamiliar country is filled with uncertainties. Due to a lack of language and cultural knowledge misunderstandings occur. People in these circumstances are vulnerable to experiences of humiliation. The majority population's prejudices against strangers also contribute to newly-arrived refugees experiencing more humiliating situations than do others. This project attempts to analyze experiences of humiliation among refugees, using Somali refugees as a case. The principal research question here is why and how refugees experience humiliation in exile? What kinds of situations trigger feelings of humiliation in refugees and why are these situations experienced as humiliating? The project attempts to develop a theory of humiliating experiences among exiles, based on interviews in advance, 35 Somalis and 20 Norwegians are already interviewed), as well as participatory observations and meetings with a focus group. Refugees in a society vastly different from that of their home country might be vulnerable to intimidation, and might also be met in hurtful ways. Humiliation occurring in the home country might continue in the new country, and new types of humiliating situations might develop between individuals from the home country in the new setting. The theory set forth to identify typical reactions of the refugees to certain humiliating situations, and offers some suggestions for ways to prevent humiliating experiences.



Material & Links

Diaspora and the City: Memory, Emotion and Belonging
Annual Conference of the Association of American Geographers
Boston, Massachusetts
April 15-19, 2008
Organizers: Alison Blunt, Jayani Bonnerjee, Noah Hysler-Rubin and Shompa Lahiri, Queen Mary, University of London
The first annual workshop at The City Centre, Queen Mary, University of London, will explore the critical relationships between cities and diasporas. Although ideas and lived experiences of diaspora are intrinsically transnational, a wide range of research invokes the nation through material and imaginative connections to a past, present or imagined ‘homeland.’ Other research focuses on the city primarily as a site of diasporic resettlement. This workshop will focus on the city as a distinctive location within ‘diaspora space’ (Brah, 1996) and will address the ways in which the city, as a place of origin and resettlement, is a site of diasporic memory, emotion and belonging.
Through its focus on urban diasporas and the importance of the city in fostering diasporic imaginations and experiences, the workshop will extend debates about transnational and postcolonial urbanism, cosmopolitan cities and urban memory.The first annual workshop at The City Centre, Queen Mary, University of London, will explore the critical relationships between cities and diasporas. Although ideas and lived experiences of diaspora are intrinsically transnational, a wide range of research invokes the nation through material and imaginative connections to a past, present or imagined ‘homeland.’ Other research focuses on the city primarily as a site of diasporic resettlement. This workshop will focus on the city as a distinctive location within ‘diaspora space’ (Brah, 1996) and will address the ways in which the city, as a place of origin and resettlement, is a site of diasporic memory, emotion and belonging.
Through its focus on urban diasporas and the importance of the city in fostering diasporic imaginations and experiences, the workshop will extend debates about transnational and postcolonial urbanism, cosmopolitan cities and urban memory.

Training on Migration in Nepal
The South Asia Migration Resource Network is organizing its Second Residential
Training Workshop on Migration, Globalsation, Security and Development in Godavari Village Resort, Kathmandu, Nepal from 09 March, 2008 to 16 March, 2008.

Europe and its Established and Emerging Immigrant Communities: Assimilation, Multiculturalism or Integration?
Two day International Conference, 10 – 11 November 2007: De Montfort University, Leicester.

“On Whose Terms? Critical Negotiations in Black British Literature and the Arts"
An international conference at Goldsmiths, 13-14 March 2008.

migrations & identities: a journal of people and ideas in motion
migrations & identities is a new journal published bi-annually by Liverpool University Press. The title represents a programme: We aim to interrogate notions of ‘identity’ while asking how the fact of mobility and displacement shapes understandings of self and the wider world, among both migrants and ‘host’ societies. By the same token, we seek to understand how ideas and concepts are transformed as they ‘migrate’ from one place and culture to another.
Multi- and interdisciplinary in both conception and management, migrations & identities aims to cover the widest possible range of places, periods and methods, subject only to a shared curiosity and enthusiasm about the possibilities of working at the interface between the investigation of the material conditions of migration processes and the study of ideas and subjectivities.
In particular, we hope that scholars working in many fields will find in migrations & identities a forum for discussion of the methods appropriate to a project of linking observable experience and mentalities in difference times and places, and that among the topics of discussion will be the real challenges involved in conversing across disciplinary boundaries.
We are now inviting proposals for contributions for the inaugural issue, to be published in the summer of 2008. We welcome both critical surveys considering how particular disciplines or fields of study have dealt with the relationship between migration and identity, and case studies which exemplify a self-conscious approach to the methodological issues it raises. Your proposal should be for an article of 5-8,000 words, and should take the form of an abstract of no more than 300 words.
Please send abstracts to Mark Choonara at inmotion[@] no later than 15th September 2007.

Refugee Film
Following the success of the first festival in 2006 the RFF will showcase a new lineup of award-winning features and documentary films. All films will be about the lives, trials, and triumphs of people forced to leave their homes as a result of persecution and war...
Please

International Seminar Series on the Theme of: “Migration and Diaspora-related Multilingualism: Sites, Domains, Encounters"
The AILA Research Network on Language and Migration, the first seminar in the series will be held in the Centre for Social Studies, University of Coimbra.

Inter-Sections is a new blog on migration, past and present, in all its forms - refugee, diaspora, exile, return, temporary, labour, tourist - and related issues of identity and community organisation.

New Advanced Course in "Refugee Health in the Nordic Countries"
The Nordic School of Public Health in Gøteborg announces a new course for people who work with refugee children and their families. Starting with the 2006 autumn term, NHV is expanding its offering in the area of "Refuge, migration and health in the Nordic region" with new courses and a new research initiative. The programme will be headed by Associate Professor Henry Ascher.
The focus is on health promotion factors. Since refugee children come from very difficult life situations, it is important to support salutogenic factors in the aim of reducing the negative impact of their traumatic experiences. From a Nordic perspective, the course also looks into the differences between and positive lessons from the countries' work with asylum issues, reception and integration.
Two new Ph.D. candidates are being coupled to the research initiative.

EU Job Centres to Target Africans
The EU will open its first job centre in Africa, to prevent migrants risking their lives by entering Europe illegally...
Please read the entire article at

The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC)
The Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), established in 1998 by the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC), is the leading international body monitoring conflict-induced internal displacement worldwide. Through its work, the Centre contributes to improving national and international capacities to protect and assist the millions of people around the globe who have been displaced within their own country as a result of conflicts or human rights violations. At the request of the United Nations, the Geneva-based IDMC runs an online database providing comprehensive information and analysis on internal displacement in some 50 countries. Based on its monitoring and data collection activities, the Centre advocates for durable solutions to the plight of the internally displaced in line with international standards. The IDMC also carries out training activities to enhance the capacity of local actors to respond to the needs of internally displaced people (IDPs). In its work, the Centre cooperates with and provides support to local and national civil society initiatives.

Who Asked Them Anyway? Rights, Policies and Wellbeing of Refugees in Egypt
By Katarzyna Grabska
Forced Migration and Refugee Studies, American University in Cairo, Egypt
July 2006. This paper is also posted on (under publications).

The Diasporas, Migration and Identities Programme Large Grant Awards
The Diasporas, Migration and Identities Programme Large Grant Awards have now been finalised and can be viewed on the website at:

Refugees and Migrants, and a Rights-based Approach to Development
Short Course, 8–17 January 2007, at the American University in Cairo (AUC).
Forced Migration and Refugee Studies (FMRS) at the American University in Cairo (AUC)
This ten day advanced course is designed for practitioners from government, inter-governmental non-governmental agencies, donors and community representatives in the Middle East and Africa with institutional responsibilities in the field of refugees and migration. The participants will explore the practical implications and challenges of applying the much-touted human rights approach to policy making in real situations. The course will be both theoretical and practical, drawing on the wealth of lessons arising from trial and error, to determine the best-possible development outcomes for hosts, refugees, and migrants. Participants will take away new skills and techniques to apply in their own context.

A Human Rights Approach to Migration
Church Center for the UN, NY, Thursday September 14, 2006.
The debate over immigration and supporting legislation at the national level has been an ever pressing issue not only in the United States, but in many other countries as well, as conflicts around the world deepen, and immigrants leave their home countries for a chance at a better life. Within the United States, Congress has been deadlocked over how to properly address illegal immigrants in the US - whether to criminalize illegal immigration or provide a path to citizenship, among other issues. How do these domestic debates fit into the international conversation on immigration? How does the Convention on the Rights of Migrant Workers play a role, particularly for countries such as Mexico, which has a large migrant community from and within its borders? With the 61st General Assembly poised for a high-level dialogue on migration and development, a key element of the discussion is missing - a human rights approach to migration. UNA-USA's Council of Organizations will host this timely briefing to address this gap and examine migration from a human rights perspective

EU promises help with migrants
The European Commission says it will do more to help EU member states handle large flows of migrants. Justice Commissioner Franco Frattini was replying to a new appeal for help from Spain, which is struggling with an influx by sea from West Africa. The EU launched an operation this month to turn back small boats carrying migrants from Cape Verde, Mauritania and Senegal to the Canary Islands. But Spain says the operation is not big enough and took too long to get going. Deputy Prime Minister Maria Teresa Fernandez de la Vega said Spain needed "more boats, more planes, more personnel".
Please see the entire article at

Diasporas, Migration and Identities Postgraduate Event at the University of Leeds, 13 and 14 December 2006
This is the first of two postgraduate events to be run under the auspices of the Diasporas, Migration and Identities Programme. The second will be held in 2008.

AHRC Diaspora Programme
The AHRC Diaspora project is a regional network based upon arts, migration and diaspora (see also and out of it has emerged an image makers sub group led by John Perivolaris (Photographer). John is currently developing an arts project with the Somali communities in Leicester, UK. Please also see

Migration without borders: An investigation into the free movement of people
Global Migration Perspectives, No. 27, April 2005
by Antoine Pécoud and Paul de Guchteneire
UNESCO, Paris, and Global Commission on International Migration, Geneva

Migration report marks ''sea change'' in attitudes
[This item comes via IRIN, a UN humanitarian news and information service, but may not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations or its agencies. All IRIN material may be reposted or reprinted free-of-charge]
NEW YORK, 8 June (IRIN) - Marking the release of a new United Nations report on the impact of migration patterns on development, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan on Tuesday called for a standing forum to encourage governments to take an integrated approach to the migration issue.
Annan told the General Assembly that migrants could be highly beneficial for their countries of origin and of destination. He said the report clearly showed that the world was "in the midst of a new migration era, and that international migration today [was] indeed a global phenomenon."
The report, which followed an independent Global Commission on International Migration in 2005, was produced to help inform the debate ahead of a high-level dialogue on migration at the General Assembly in September.
Hani Zlotnik, director of the UN Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, said the report reflected a major shift in how migrants were perceived by many governments.
"Governments have started to focus on the beneficial aspects of migration. There has been a sea change in how they approach migration, as compared to 10 or 20 years ago. Previously, migration was seen as a negative thing, but in the last 15 years countries have realised that migrants are an asset, and they have taken steps to facilitate migration," said Zlotnik.
"The message by these governments is 'we value you and want to remain linked to you'," she said. The rise in overseas consulates and measures allowing for proxy voting and dual nationality are evidence that governments are now trying to facilitate the migration process.
The report found that migration had become a major feature of international life, with more than 191 million people living outside their home countries in 2005, remitting an estimated US $232 billion back home, more than double the estimate a decade earlier.
A UN official involved with the report told journalists on Tuesday that over the course of history there had always been concerns about migration. Addressing specific movements "such as the recent influx of migrants into Spain from Northern Africa, or into the United States from Mexico" was a sovereign issue, he said. "But with this report, we can contribute a clear understanding of what the positive benefits of migration are, to help inform the debate."
For example, a 'brain drain' of skilled migrants from a developing country had been often perceived as negative, because it took qualified people out, he said. In fact, recent research shows that this very process can stimulate education, as, for example, younger generations see older counterparts going overseas for work, remitting funds back and in some instances returning to the country with assets and resources. So what was perceived as a net loss to the country, can often be a longterm net gain, he said.
There was a downside to migration, however. Annan cited the "all too familiar abuses" to which many migrants were subjected, such as falling prey to traffickers, exploitation and xenophobic reactions by a resident population.
Zlotnik said a key question was whether migration was actually leading to big benefits in terms of development. "The report has identified some positive aspects, and some negative, too. We don't pretend that the current world of migration is perfect - it's not. But this shift in perception that migration is not all bad is an important one," she said.

The Sociology and Politics of Immigration in Europe
The EUI Robert Schuman Center for Advanced Studies and the Social and Political Science Department organizes the summer training programme “The sociology and politics of immigration in Europe.” It will take place at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy from 2-9 July 2006. Participants are expected to arrive on 2 July 2006.

International Organization for Migration (IOM)
IOM is committed to the principle that humane and orderly migration benefits migrants and society. As the leading international organization for migration, IOM acts with its partners in the international community to:
Assist in meeting the growing operational challenges of migration management,
Advance understanding of migration issues,
Encourage social and economic development through migration, and
Uphold the human dignity and well-being of migrants

Human Security Report 2005
Comprehensive Three-Year Study Shows Surprising Evidence of Major Declines in Armed Conflicts, Genocides, Human Rights Abuse, Military Coups and International Crises, Worldwide

The Number of Armed Conflicts Has Dropped 40% since 1992. This Unheralded Decline Is Linked to a Dramatic Increase in UN Conflict Prevention and Peace Building Efforts.
New York, October 17, 2005
Andrew Mack

"UN Study Introduces New Kind of Refugees"
By Saifuddin Ismailji
and posted at

Mature Differentiation As Response to Terrorism and Humiliation: Refrain From the Language of 'War' and 'Evil'
Lindner, Evelin Gerda (2005), in Transnational Foundation for Peace and Future Research, 2005 , see also

No international definition of terrorism: UN summit agrees reform document
World leaders have signed a deal on reforming the UN, though critics say it is much weaker than first envisaged

The 35-page final document establishes a new Peacebuilding Commission to help countries make the transition from war to peace, and agrees there is an international responsibility to protect people from genocide, war crimes and ethnic cleansing.
It sets up a new Human Rights Council, and condemns terrorism "in all its forms and manifestations, committed by whomever, wherever and for whatever purposes" - though the summit failed to settle on a definition of terrorism.
Correspondents say disagreements have meant some of the anticipated advances have been dropped or watered down. See entire article here.

Refugee sues Australia government
A 10-year-old Iranian boy has launched a landmark legal case against the Australian government. Read the entire article here.

Internet Resources Provided by the Project on Defense Alternatives
The Project on Defense Alternatives has just added one thousand full-text links to its public access Internet Library pages. These links lead to online documents, reports, and articles published in 2005 by more than 200 official and NGO sources. Our libraries include:
•  Terrorism, counter-terrorism, homeland security
•  Defense Strategy Review
•  Chinese Military Power
•  Revolution in Military Affairs
•  Occupation Distress
•  War Report (Iraq & Afghanistan)
The sites also contain more than 4,000 document links from pervious updates. I hope you find them useful for research, reference, and teaching. If so, please share the URLs with others. Also see:
•  PDA publications index
•  PDA Military, War, & Peace Bookmarks

World Bank loan to India to lift people out of poverty
The World Bank plans to lend India $9bn (£5bn) over the next three years to help fund development projects such as road building and water improvement.
World Bank president Paul Wolfowitz is visiting India and said that the money would help sustain the growth needed to lift 250 million people out of poverty.
Although India is one of the world's fastest growing economies, millions of people live on less than $1 a day. The World Bank money will be aimed at rural areas that are the hardest hit. Please read the full text here.

Fighting Terrorism

"A Global Strategy for Fighting Terrorism"
Secretary-General's keynote address to the Closing Plenary of the International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security - "A Global Strategy for Fighting Terrorism," Madrid, Spain, 10 March 2005.

Counter-Terrorism Committee
On 28 September 2001, acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter (concerning threats to international peace and security), the Security Council adopted Resolution 1373 (2001), reaffirming its unequivocal condemnation of the terrorist attacks which took place in New York, Washington, D.C. and Pennsylvania on 11 September 2001, and expressing its determination to prevent all such acts. The CTED is headed by its Executive Director, Mr Javier Rupérez at the Assistant Secretary-General level. Mailing Address: Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED), 405 Lexington Ave., New York, NY 10174, United States, (212) 457-1853, E-mail:

From Reaction to Prevention: Civil Society Forging Partnerships to Prevent Violent Conflict and Build Peace (New York, UN Headquarters, 19-21 July 2005)
Conference on UN reform that would require the organisation to act quickly to prevent genocide.

Post-Conflict Reconstruction: Nation- and/or State-Building
Horst Fischer & Noelle Quénivet (eds) (2005), Bochumer Schriften zur Friedenssicherung und zum humanitären Völkerrecht, Band 52, Berliner Wissenschaftsverlag, Berlin, 2005, 194 pp., ISBN 3-8305-1003-9

The Psychology of Terrorism [Four Volumes, 2002]
Series: Psychological Dimensions to War and Peace
Chris Stout, Foreword by Klaus Schwab

What is Terror?
The University of Reading, UK
September 8th - 10th 2005
Society for European Philosophy and Forum For European Philosophy
Joint Conference

The Common Ground News Service, August 9, 2005
Articles in this edition:
1. "The Inequality of Empathy" by Samir Shehata
Samir Shehata, an Egyptian-American professor at Georgetown University, asks why Americans find it easier to identify with the suffering of Londoners than with the suffering of Egyptians, Saudis or Iraqis, in the hopes of improving collective security based on a common humanity.
(Source: Al Ahram, August 4-10, 2005)
2. "Beyond the condemnation of terrorism" by Louay M. Safi
Louay M. Safi, author of Peace And The Limits Of War: Transcending Classical Conception of Jihad, Tensions and Transitions in the Muslim World and the Challenge of Modernity, admires the "strong stand taken by American Muslim leaders against indiscriminate violence as a testimony of a remarkable maturity and the clarity of vision in dealing with a complex issue" and points out where both Muslim leaders and Western policies do not go far enough.
(Source: Middle East Times, August 2, 2005)
3. "Muslims in Europe: Cultural Integration Is a Two-Way Street" by Yasmin Alibhai-Brown
Yasmin Alibhai-Brown, Senior Researcher at the Foreign Policy Centre and writer of a weekly column in the Independent, talks about how fear and racism are preventing positive integration of minorities, particularly Muslims, in Europe. She warns readers that "[w]ithout socializing, real and virtual ghettoes soon form blotting out the common humanity we all share."
(Source: The Independent, August 2, 2005)
4. ~ Youth Views ~
"The U.S. Should Step up Cultural Exchange Programs" by Rebecca P. Tollefson
Rebecca P. Tollefson will be attending the American University's School of International Service this fall. She explains why exchange between the United States and the Arab world must increase, arguing that "[the West] must do far more than welcome immigrants and sponsor study programs for others to come to us. We must also push ourselves to try and understand cultures that are markedly different from our own." This is particularly important as our world becomes much smaller and its people much closer.
(Source: CGNews-PiH, August 9, 2005)

Sexual Offenses in Armed Conflict and International Law
Noëlle N.R. Quénivet (2005)

Domestic and Gender based Violence among Refugees and Internally Displaced Women
Zinthiya Ganeshpanchan (2005)

The Common Ground News Service, July 12, 2005
Articles in this edition:
1. "Why the bombings in London are not the work of 'Islamic' terrorists" - Daily Star Editorial
This editorial from the Daily Star, examines London's metropolitan police commissioner comment on the recent bombs: "the culprits certainly were not Islamic terrorists, because Islam and terrorism simply don't go together."
(Source: The Daily Star, July 8, 2005)
2. "Iraq, post-Nazi Germany, and preventative diplomacy" by Hady Amr
Hady Amr, former National Director for Ethnic Outreach for Al Gore's Presidential Campaign and author of "The Need to Communicate: How to Improve U.S. Public Diplomacy with the Islamic World", raises concrete suggestions that the United States can take to improve the situation in Iraq based on reflections of American involvement in Germany following WWII.
(Source: Search for Common Ground, July 3, 2005)
3. "Why the US and Iran love to hate each other" by Scott Peterson
Scott Peterson, staff writer for the Christian Science Monitor, considers whether the hatred between the United States and Iran actually stems from their similarities.
(Source: The Christian Science Monitor, June 29, 2005

Peace and Conflict 2005: A Global Survey of Armed Conflicts, Self-Determination Movements, and Democracy
Monty G. Marshall & Ted Robert Gurr (2005), College Park, MD: Center for International Development and Conflict Management, University of Maryland.

Pakistan's Moderates are Beaten in Public
Ali Dayan Hasan (2005), International Herald Tribune, Wednesday, June 15, 2005

Au Pérou, les victimes du Sentier lumineux attendent toujours l'aide de l'Etat
LE MONDE, 20.06.05

Chrystelle Barbier, LIMA correspondance (2005), Démunis de tout, les Péruviens ayant fui le terrorisme attendent depuis longtemps des réparations. Dans les années 1980, au moins 600 000 Péruviens ont tout abandonné pour fuir la terreur que faisaient régner les guérilleros du Sentier lumineux dans leur campagne...
Mercedes St. Elin kindly wrote to Chrystelle Barbier and she kindly provides us with the following contact address:
ASFADEL , Jr. Gálvez Chipoco 340, Interior 9 – Lima Cercado - Peru
Oficina del Comité Andino de Servicios , Calle Enrique Meiggs 131, Of. 14 –
- ASFADEL: 00 51 1965-27952 personne à joindre Rufina Rivera 00 51 1 98857219

New Praeger Securities International Imprint

New UN High Commissioner for Refugees is António Guterres
Mr. António Guterres joined the UN High Commissioner for Refugees on June 15, 2005, succeeding Mr. Ruud Lubbers of the Netherlands. A former Portuguese prime minister, Mr. Guterres was elected by the UN General Assembly to a five-year term and is the UN refugee agency's 10th High Commissioner.... [read more]

Art for Refugees in Transition
There are 17 million refugees and displaced persons in the world today. Eight million are children. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2004.
A.R.T. provides curriculum and training programs to engage both children and adults in refugee camps in visual, performing and creative arts drawn from their own cultures. These activities provide international relief institutions with tools to help refugee communities recover from the trauma, terror and dislocation of war. Please see here the January 2005 report of ART, Art for Refugees in Transition.

Peace Brigades International - Colombia Project

Arts and Humanities Research Council, UK
Established in April 2005 the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) has an annual budget of more than £75 million. The Council evolved from the Arts and Humanities Research Council, which was founded in 1998. AHCR has a range of UK-wide programmes supporting the highest quality research and postgraduate training in the arts and humanities.
The AHRC has launched the following programme:
Diasporas, Migration and Identities (please see Diasporas, Migration and Identities Programme)
This £5.5 million trans-disciplinary programme will run for five years until the end of 2009. As the first autonomous research programme run by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, the aim is to maximise the participation of scholars from a wide range of arts and humanities disciplines in researching, reflecting upon and discussing issues relating to diasporas, migration and identities. To this end several different schemes are being initiated to fund small and large research projects, workshops and networks, conferences and seminars. Interdisciplinary engagement and collaborations with partners in the public sector, the cultural sector and the wider community are encouraged, as is the imaginative dissemination of the research. Kim Knott, Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Leeds, has been appointed as the Programme's Director. She took up this part-time (50%) post from January 2005. Professor Knott will provide intellectual leadership and academic coherence in the development and management of the programme. Support will be given to three schemes:
1. The Diasporas, Migration and Identities Small Grants Scheme is designed to provide support of between £1,000 and £10,000 to meet the costs directly related to small-scale research projects. The Scheme will fund experimental initiatives, temporary research assistance and support for individual scholars with travel costs, access to libraries, collections etc.
2. The Diasporas, Migration and Identities Networks and Workshops Scheme is designed to support either a series of workshops over one year (up to £10,000) or a network of researchers over two years (up to £20,000), to enable researchers to share ideas, to develop collaborative proposals or publications, and to support engagement between scholars in the UK and beyond, and between scholars and other other stakeholders. The closing date for applications for the Diasporas, Migration and Identities Small Grants Scheme and the Diasporas, Migration and Identities Networks and Workshops Scheme was 5pm on Friday 24th June 2005. There is no future deadline for either of these schemes.
3. The Diasporas, Migration and Identities large research grants scheme is designed to provide support for teams of researchers for a period of between one to three years. Applications will be encouraged from both less established as well as more established senior scholars, and from those wishing to undertake small-scale innovative shorter projects as well as larger scale and more costly ones. The call for the large research grant scheme will be made in October/November 2005, with a closing date of February 2006 and further details will be available on the website in the Autumn.
We strongly advise you to refer to the full Programme Specification b efore submitting your application.
You may also wish to consult the Frequently Asked Questions document for further details on the Programme.
For further information about the Diasporas, Migration and Identities Programme please contact Professor Kim Knott email telephone 0113 343 3646.
If you would like to be added to our mailing list for information about the programme, please email Jennifer Woodward, Research Awards Officer at .
For further information about the development of other AHRC strategic programmes, please contact: Faye Auty, Senior Programme Manager, , telephone 0117 987 6664 or Carl Dolan, Programme Development Officer, , telephone 0117 987 6682.